NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 provides comprehensive answers to all the questions related to the physical features of India. Students can easily understand the topics like the Himalayas, the Northern Plains, the Peninsular Plateau, and the Coastal Plains with the help of these solutions. The solutions are designed in a simple language and cover all the important topics that are part of the CBSE Class 9 Social Science syllabus.
Ch 2 Geography Physical Features of India Questions and Answers Class 9
Q1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
i) A landmass bounded by the sea on three sides is referred to as
(a) Coast (c) Peninsula
(b) Island (d) None of the above
Ans : Peninsula
ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectively called
(a) Himachal (c) Purvachal
(b) Uttrakhand (d) None of the above
Ans : Purvachal
iii) The Western coastal strip, south of Goa is referred to as
(a) Coromandel (c) kannad
(b) Konkan (d) Northern Circar
Ans : Kannad
iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is
(a) Anamudi (c) Mahendragiri
(b) Kanchenjunga (d) Khasi
Ans : Mahendragiri
Q2. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What are tectonic plates?
Ans : According to ‘Theory of Plate Tectonics’, The crust (upper part) of the earth has been formed out of seven major and some minor plates known as tectonic plates ( which are also called lithospheric plate )
(ii) Which continents of today were part of the Gondwana land?
Ans : The oldest landmaster, (the Peninsular part) was a part of the Gondwana land. The Gondwana land also included some more areas – India, Australia, South Africa, South America and Antarctica as one single land mass.
(iii) What is bhabar?
Ans : After descending from the mountains, the rivers deposit pebbles in a narrow belt of about 8 to 16 kms in width lying parallel to the slopes of the Shiwaliks. It is known as bhabar.
(iv) Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.
Ans : Three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south are :-
a) The Great or Inner Himalayas or the Himadri.
b) The Lesser Himalayas or Himachal
c) The Shiwaliks
(v) Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhya ranges?
Ans : Malwa plateau or Central Highland lies between the Aravali and the vindhya ranges.
(vi) Name the island group of India having coral origin.
Ans : Lakshadweep Island group of India having coral origin.
Q3. Distinguish between
(i) Converging and diverging tectonic plates
|Converging tectonic plates||Diverging tectonic plates|
|• Convergent Boundary:- In this case, the two adjacent tectonic plates move towards each other.||• Divergent Boundary:- In this case, the two adjacent plates move away from each other.|
(ii) Bhangar and Khadar
|• Bhangar is the largest part of the northern plain and is composed of the oldest alluvial soil.||• The floodplains formed by younger alluvium are called Khadar.|
|•They lie above the flood plains. They resemble terraces.||• The soil in this region is renewed every year and is highly fertile.|
|• The soil of this region is locally known as kankar and is composed of calcareous deposits.||• This region is very suitable for intensive agricultural activities.|
(iii) Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats
|Western Ghats||Eastern Ghats|
|1) Western Ghats stretch from the Tapi River to Kanayakumari.||1) The Eastern Ghats stretch from Mahanadi Valley to the Nilgiris in the south.|
|2) Western Ghats average width is 50 to 80 km.||2) Eastern Ghats width varies from 100 to 200 km.|
|3) Western Ghats is the source of many large rivers.||3) no big river originates from the Eastern Ghats.|
|4) Western Ghats are continuous and can be crossed through passes only.||4) Eastern Ghats has been divided into several parts by large rivers.|
|5) Western Ghats average elevation is 900 to 1,600 meters.||5) The average elevation of Eastern Ghats is about 600 meters above sea level.|
|6) Highest Peak of Western Ghats: Anai Mudi (2695 meters).||6) Highest Peak of Eastern Ghats: Mahendragiri (1501 meters).|
|7) Western ghats receive an orographic type of rainfall. South-west monsoons coming from the Arabian Sea and causing heavy rainfall.||7) Eastern Ghats is almost parallel to the monsoons coming from the Bay of Bengal and does not cause much rainfall.|
Q4. Describe how the Himalayas were formed.
Ans : The Indian Peninsula drifted towards the north and finally collided with the much larger Eurasian Plate. As a result of this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the
geosynclines (known as Tethys) got folded and formed the mountain systems of West Asia and Himalaya.
Q5. Which are the major physiographic divisions of India?
Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.
Ans : The major physiographic divisions of India are the following:- i) The Himalayan Mountains
ii) The Northern Plain
iii) The Peninsular Plateau
iv) The Indian Desert
v) The Coastal Plains
vi) The Islands
Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular Plateau is the one major difference between them is that the whole mountain system of Himalaya represents a very youthful topography with high peaks, deep valleys, and fast-flowing rivers whereas the peninsular plateau are composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks with gently rising hills and wide valleys.
Q6. Give an account of the northern plains of India.
Ans : The northern plains are mainly formed by the alluvial deposits. The northern plain has been formed by the interconnection of the three major river systems and they are the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries. This plain is completely formed of alluvial soil.
Q7. Write short notes on the following.
(i) The Indian Desert
Ans : The Indian desert is also known as the Thar Desert, it lies towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills. This region gets very less rainfall which is less than 150 mm in a year. The climate is dry and vegetation is found very less. Luni is the only large river but some streams appear during the rainy season and Crescent-shaped dunes (barchans) are found in this area.
(ii) The Central Highland
Ans : The part of the Peninsular plateau lying to the north of the Narmada river covering a major area of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands.
(iii) The Island groups of India
Ans : India has two groups of islands:- (i) Lakshadweep Islands and (ii) Andaman & Nicobar Islands
(i) Lakshadweep Islands
- The Lakshadweep Islands covers an area of 32 sq kms. It got its name in 1973.
- The administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep is at Kavaratti Island.
- This group of islands is composed of small coral islands.
- This group of islands is rich in terms of biodiversity (flora & fauna).
(ii) Andaman & Nicobar Islands
- The Andaman & Nicobar Islands are located in the Bay of Bengal.
- These islands are bigger in size and have more islands.
- This group of islands can be divided into two groups. Andaman is in the north and Nicobar is in the south.
- These islands are located close to the equator and thus experience an equatorial type of climate and also have thick forest cover.
- These islands too have rich biodiversity (flora & fauna).