Atoms and Molecules Class 9 Notes
Laws of chemical combination
Whenever reactants react together to form the products or the elements combine together to form a compound, they do this according to certain laws. These laws are called laws of chemical combination.
Law of conservation of mass
It states, “Mass can neither be created nor be destroyed during a chemical reaction.” This means that in any chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants is equal to the total mass of the products and there is no change in mass during the chemical reaction. It is also known as the law of indestructibility of matter.
Law of constant proportions / Law of definite proportions
“In a chemical substance (or compound), the elements are always present in definite proportions (or ratios) by mass.”
Explanation of laws if chemical combination :
Dalton’s atomic theory
According to Dalton’s atomic theory, all matter (whether an element, a compound or a mixture), is composed of small particles, called atoms.
Atoms are the smallest particles of an element that may have or may not have an independent existence but take part in a chemical reaction.
According to Dalton’s, each element has a characteristic atomic mass. But determining the mass of an individual atom was a relatively difficult task due to its very small size.
Hence, their relative atomic masses were determined using the laws of chemical combination and the compounds formed. For this purpose, initially, 1/16 of the mass of an atom of naturally occurring oxygen was taken as a standard unit because of the following two reasons:
(i) Oxygen reacted with a large number of elements and formed compounds.
(ii) This unit gave masses of most of the elements as whole numbers.
However, in 1961, carbon (C-12 isotope) was chosen as a standard reference for measuring atomic masses universally.
The smallest particle of an element or compound which is capable of independent existence and shows all the properties of that substance is called a molecule.
It is defined as the number of atoms present in a molecule. On the basis of atomicity, molecules can be classified as:
(i) Monoatomic molecules: They consist of only one atom. e.g. He, Ne, Ar, etc.
(ii) Diatomic molecules: They consist of two atoms. e.g. H2, O2, N2, etc.
(iii) Triatomic molecules: They consist of three atoms. e.g. O3, CO2, etc.
(iv) Tetraatomic molecules: They consist of four atoms. e.g. P4, H2O2, etc.
(v) Polyatomic molecules: They consist of more than four atoms. e.g. CH4 (Penta-atomic), S8 (Octa-atomic) etc.
When atoms, groups of atoms or molecules lose or gain an electron (s) they become charged. These charged species are known as ions.
They positively charged ions are known as cations.
e.g. Na+, K+ etc.
The negatively charged ions are known as anions.
e.g. Cl–, Br– etc.
A group of atoms carrying charge a single entity is known as a polyatomic ion.
The combining power (or capacity) of an element is called its valency.
Calculate the molecular mass of the following substances.
Sol: Molecular mass of ammonia (NH3)
= 1 X 14 + 3 X 1 = 17 u