NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 3 Poverty as a challenge Questions and Answers

Poverty as a Challenge Questions and Answers Class 9

Q1. Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India.

Ans: Poverty is often assessed through an evaluation of income or consumption levels. To determine whether an individual is poor, a specific “minimum level” of income or consumption is set, which is deemed necessary to meet basic needs. In India, when establishing the poverty line, subsistence minimums for food, clothing, footwear, fuel and lighting, education, medical care, etc. are determined. These basic necessities are then multiplied by their corresponding rupee prices. The current formula for estimating the poverty line in terms of food requirements is based on the recommended calorie intake.

As of 2000, a family of five earning less than Rs. 1,640 per month is considered to be living below the poverty line, and this figure is Rs. 2,270 per month for those in urban areas. The poverty line is established at an expected calorie intake of 2400 calories per person in rural areas and 2100 calories in urban areas. Anyone consuming less than this amount is considered to be living below the poverty line.

Q2. Do you think that the present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate?

Ans: The current approach to measuring poverty is inadequate as it only considers essential requirements such as food, clothing, and fuel, but the quality of these necessities is often of the lowest standard. Additionally, the poverty line is determined without accounting for fluctuations in prices, leading to an incomplete understanding of the true extent of poverty. To address these issues, adjustments for inflation and market fluctuations should be incorporated into the poverty line.

Q3. Describe poverty trends in India since 1973.

Ans: According to the Economic Survey of 2017-18, poverty in India has decreased, but it is still at a very high level. The poverty ratio, which accounts for both rural and urban areas, was 45% in 1993-94 and had decreased to 22% by 2011-12. However, the absolute number of people living in poverty remains a major concern. In 1993-94, there were 404 million poor people living in both rural and urban areas, while in 2011-12 this number had only decreased to 270 million. These statistics indicate that although the poverty rate has decreased, the government must take significant measures to eliminate poverty entirely in India.

It is essential to understand that reducing poverty requires a comprehensive approach that addresses the root causes of poverty. It involves providing access to basic needs such as food, shelter, and healthcare, along with education and job opportunities. Additionally, the government must ensure that there is a fair distribution of resources and opportunities to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor.

In conclusion, while the reduction of poverty in India is a positive trend, it is crucial to focus on the absolute number of people living in poverty. The government must take decisive action to eliminate poverty in India by adopting a holistic approach that addresses the root causes of poverty and promotes equitable distribution of resources and opportunities.

Q4. Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India.

Ans: There are several key factors that contribute to poverty in India. One of the most significant causes is the low level of economic development that resulted from British colonial rule. The colonial government policies destroyed traditional handicrafts and discouraged the development of industries like textiles, leading to a lack of job opportunities and economic growth.

Although the Green Revolution did create many job opportunities, they were insufficient compared to the number of job seekers in the country. This led to widespread unemployment and underemployment, particularly in rural areas, where poverty rates are highest.

Additionally, the unequal distribution of land and resources is a critical factor contributing to poverty in India. A small percentage of the population controls the majority of resources, leaving many without access to basic needs like food, shelter, and healthcare.

Furthermore, the poor in India often spend significant amounts of money on fulfilling social and religious obligations, which can lead to a cycle of poverty as they struggle to meet their basic needs.

Finally, inequality in income distribution is a significant driver of poverty in India. The gap between the rich and the poor continues to widen, leading to an increasing number of people living in poverty.

In short, there are various causes of poverty in India, ranging from historical factors to current economic and social inequalities. Addressing these issues requires a multifaceted approach that involves the government, private sector, and civil society working together to create sustainable solutions.

Q5. Identify the social and economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India.

Ans: Scheduled caste and scheduled tribe households are the most vulnerable to poverty among social groups, while rural agricultural labor households and urban casual labor households are the most vulnerable among economic groups. Discrimination, exclusion, lack of job security, and economic shocks contribute to their susceptibility to poverty. Addressing their specific needs and promoting inclusion is essential to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development in India.

Q6. Describe global poverty trends.

Ans: The World Bank’s definition of extreme economic poverty as living on less than $1 per day has seen a decrease from 28 percent to 21 percent in developing countries between 1990 and 2001. However, regional differences are significant, with China and Southeast Asian countries experiencing a substantial decline due to rapid economic growth and investments in human resource development. Conversely, South Asian countries have seen a marginal reduction in poverty rates. Sub-Saharan Africa saw an increase in poverty rates, while Latin America’s poverty rate remained constant.

Additionally, poverty has resurfaced in some former socialist countries like Russia. The international poverty line defines poverty as the population below $1 a day.

Q7. Describe global poverty trends.

Ans: Reducing poverty has varying success rates across different states, leading to disparities in poverty levels between them. The states of Orissa, Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh have the highest poverty rates in India, with 47%, 42%, and 37% of their populations living below the poverty line, respectively. On the other hand, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh are better-off states with lower poverty rates. While there has been a substantial reduction in global poverty, with China and Southeast Asian countries experiencing the most significant declines, poverty has remained stagnant in Latin America and increased in sub-Saharan Africa. Even countries like Russia have experienced the emergence of poverty after it was once non-existent.

Q8. Describe the current government strategy of poverty alleviation.

Ans: The Indian government has made the removal of poverty a primary objective of its developmental strategy. This strategy is based on two main pillars: promoting economic growth and implementing targeted anti-poverty programs. Education is also being emphasized nationwide, resulting in an increase in literacy levels. To achieve the goal of eradicating poverty, the government has introduced various schemes such as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005, Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY), and Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY). These initiatives aim to eliminate poverty from the country and are geared towards providing employment opportunities and improving the standard of living of those living below the poverty line.

Q9. Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) What do you understand by human poverty?

Ans: The concept of human poverty goes beyond economic status and encompasses various other factors such as lack of education, inadequate healthcare, and discrimination. Therefore, eradicating poverty should not be the only goal of policymakers, but also eliminating human poverty. This requires addressing the root causes of poverty and ensuring that basic human needs are met. Providing access to quality education and healthcare, promoting equality and fairness, and implementing policies that reduce discrimination and disparity are crucial steps towards eliminating human poverty. Only by addressing these broader issues can we achieve sustainable and long-lasting solutions to poverty.

(ii) Who are the poorest of the poor?

Ans: In impoverished households, women, female infants, and the elderly are often considered the most vulnerable and marginalized. They suffer the most and are deprived of basic necessities for survival. Due to their low socio-economic status, they are often excluded from access to education, healthcare, and employment opportunities. This makes them more susceptible to the effects of poverty and limits their ability to escape the cycle of poverty. Therefore, it is essential to prioritize policies and programs that specifically address the needs and challenges faced by these groups in order to reduce poverty and improve their quality of life.

(iii) What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005?

Ans: The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005 is a landmark social welfare scheme introduced by the Indian government. Its primary features are:

  1. Guaranteed Employment: NREGA ensures that every rural household in India is provided with a minimum of 100 days of employment per year, with the wages being paid by the government.
  2. Focus on Rural Development: The scheme emphasizes the development of rural infrastructure such as roads, irrigation systems, and water conservation projects.
  3. Women’s Empowerment: The Act provides for at least one-third of the beneficiaries to be women, ensuring their participation in the workforce and promoting gender equality.
  4. Decentralized Implementation: NREGA is implemented at the local level, with gram panchayats (village councils) being responsible for identifying beneficiaries and providing employment.
  5. Transparency and Accountability: The Act ensures transparency in the implementation of the scheme by mandating the use of social audits and grievance redressal mechanisms.

Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 3

Q1. is NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 3 important for class 9.

Ans: Yes, NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 3 are important for Class 9 students. This chapter covers the topic of Poverty as a challenge, which is a crucial topic in understanding the economic conditions in India. The chapter provides insights into the causes and consequences of poverty and introduces students to various poverty alleviation programs implemented by the government.

Q2. how to learn NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 3.


  1. Read the chapter thoroughly: Begin by reading the chapter carefully and making notes on important concepts, definitions, and examples.
  2. Solve NCERT exercises: Attempt the NCERT exercises provided at the end of the chapter. This will help you understand the application of concepts and provide practice in solving different types of questions.

Leave a Reply

%d bloggers like this: