People as Resource Notes Class 9


People as a Resource is a concept that refers to the population of a country as a human resource that possesses productive skills and abilities. This population can be further developed by investing in their education and healthcare, leading to the formation of human capital. Investment in human capital yields returns, just like investment in physical capital, and is essential for the growth of the economy. Countries like Japan have recognized the importance of investing in human resources, which has led to their economic success.


Economic activities are divided into three sectors: primary, secondary, and tertiary. The primary sector includes activities that exploit nature, such as agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming, and mining. The secondary sector includes manufacturing, and the tertiary sector includes trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, services, insurance, and other related industries. These activities can be further classified into market and non-market activities. Market activities involve remuneration, while non-market activities are those that are not undertaken for monetary gain.

Historically, there has been a division of labor between men and women, with men receiving payment for their services and women not being paid for their work. Education plays an important role in helping individuals make better use of economic opportunities. Women, in particular, often work in places where there is no job security, leading to irregular and low incomes. However, women with high education and skill formation are paid highly.

Non-economic activities are those that are not undertaken for any monetary gain and include activities such as Puja-paath, housekeeping, helping the poor or disabled, and other related tasks.


The quality of the population depends on several factors, including the literacy rate, health status, and skill formation of individuals. A literate and healthy population is considered an asset as it contributes to the growth rate of the country. Education and health are two essential factors that contribute to the growth of society and enhance national income, cultural richness, and governance efficiency.


The Sarva Siksha Abhiyan, introduced in 2010, provides elementary education to all children aged 6-14 years. The mid-day meal scheme was introduced to encourage attendance and retention of children and improve their nutritional status. The 12th plan focuses on increasing access, quality, state-specific curriculum modification, vocationalization, and networking on the use of information technology, distance education, convergence of formal, non-formal, distance, and IT education institutions.


Improvement in the health status of the population has been a priority of the country. The National Policy aims to improve the accessibility of healthcare, family welfare, and nutritional services, especially for the underprivileged segment of the population. Over the last five decades, India has developed its manpower required in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors.


Unemployment is a significant problem in India, with both rural and urban areas experiencing different types of unemployment. In rural areas, unemployment is seasonal and disguised, while in urban areas, it is educated unemployment. Unemployment leads to wastage of manpower resources and has a detrimental impact on the overall growth of the economy. In India, the unemployment rate is relatively low, but it still poses a challenge to the country’s growth.


In conclusion, recognizing people as a resource is essential for the growth of the economy. Investing in human capital through education and healthcare is critical to the country’s growth and development. Economic activities are divided into three sectors, and non-economic activities are also an essential aspect of the country’s growth. The quality of population depends on several factors, including education and health, and unemployment remains a significant challenge that needs to be addressed.

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