NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India Questions and Answers

Food Security in India Questions and Answers Class 9

Q1. How is food security ensured in India?

Ans: India’s food security is maintained through two main components: 

1. The Buffer Stock and 

2. The Public Distribution System (PDS). 

The Buffer Stock consists of food grains such as wheat and rice, which are procured by the government through the Food Corporation of India (FCI). Meanwhile, the food obtained by the FCI is disseminated among the underprivileged sectors of society via government-regulated ration shops known as Fair Price Shops (FPS) under the Public Distribution System.

Q2. Which are the people more prone to food insecurity?

Ans: Food insecurity is prevalent among various social groups in India, including the Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), and certain subgroups of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) who have limited land or no land at all. Those affected by natural disasters and forced to migrate to cities also experience food insecurity. Furthermore, women, particularly pregnant and nursing mothers, often suffer from malnutrition and food insecurity.

Q3. Which states are more food insecure in India?

Ans: The states of Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are the most food insecure states of the country.

Q4. Do you believe that the green revolution has made India self-sufficient in food grains? How?

Ans: Yes, The Green Revolution, which began in India in the 1960s, played a crucial role in increasing agricultural productivity and making the country self-sufficient in food grains. The introduction of high-yielding crop varieties, modern agricultural techniques, and improved irrigation facilities resulted in a significant increase in agricultural output. This led to a surplus of food grains, which helped India meet its food requirements and reduced the country’s dependence on food imports.

The Green Revolution also brought about changes in the socio-economic landscape of rural India by improving the income of farmers, creating job opportunities, and reducing poverty and malnutrition. However, the Green Revolution had some negative impacts too, such as environmental degradation, over-dependence on chemical fertilizers, and unequal distribution of benefits.

Overall, while the Green Revolution played a significant role in making India self-sufficient in food grains, it is essential to continue to develop sustainable agricultural practices that ensure food security for all while minimizing environmental impact.

Q5. A section of people in India is still without food. Explain?

Ans: While India may be self-sufficient in foodgrains, it remains true that there are still people in the country who do not have access to food. Despite our apparent abundance, poverty continues to deprive certain sections of society of this basic necessity. Specifically, a group of landless and unemployed individuals are unable to purchase food due to their lack of purchasing power, and consequently face chronic food insecurity.

Q6. What happens to the supply of food when there is a disaster or a calamity?

Ans: If a natural calamity such as a drought occurs and results in a decrease in the production of foodgrains, it can create a shortage of food in the affected regions. This shortage can cause the prices of food to increase, making it difficult for some individuals to afford basic sustenance. If this situation persists, it can lead to widespread starvation and potentially even a famine.

Q7. Differentiate between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger?

Ans: Chronic hunger is the result of consistently insufficient diets, either due to inadequate quantity or quality. This type of hunger is particularly prevalent among impoverished individuals who lack the necessary income to purchase sufficient food to sustain themselves.

On the other hand, seasonal hunger is tied to the cycles of food growing and harvesting. This phenomenon is common in rural areas due to the seasonal nature of agricultural activities, and in urban areas due to casual labor. Seasonal hunger arises from a lack of consistent employment opportunities.

Q8. What has our government done to provide food security to the poor? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government?


In 2000, the Indian government launched two schemes aimed at providing food security to the poor. The Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) and the Annapurna Scheme (APS) were specifically designed to target the “poorest of the poor” and “indigent senior citizens,” respectively. Both schemes were linked to the existing food distribution network in order to facilitate their implementation.

The AAY sought to provide highly subsidized food to the most destitute members of society, including those who were homeless or living in extreme poverty. Meanwhile, the APS focused on providing free food to senior citizens who were unable to support themselves.

By leveraging the existing food distribution infrastructure, these schemes were able to reach their intended beneficiaries effectively. The initiatives represented an important step towards improving food security for some of India’s most vulnerable populations.

Q9. Why is a buffer stock created by the government?

Ans: The Indian government maintains a buffer stock of certain agricultural crops such as wheat and sugar. This serves to stabilize prices by purchasing excess foodgrains during the crop season, when prices tend to fall, and selling them after the season ends. This practice supports producers while maintaining price stability for consumers.

To manage the buffer stock, the Food Corporation of India was established and now has branches and centers throughout the country. The organization plays a crucial role in managing food supplies, ensuring that both producers and consumers are supported. By maintaining a steady supply of foodgrains, the government can help to prevent food shortages and price shocks, promoting stability and security in the agriculture sector.

Q10. Write notes on:

(a) Minimum Support Price

(b) Buffer Stock

(c) Issue Price 

(d) Fair Price Shops

Ans: (a) Minimum Support Price (MSP): 

Minimum Support Price (MSP) is a mechanism implemented by the Indian government to protect farmers from the fluctuations of market prices. It sets a minimum price that the government will pay for crops to ensure that farmers receive a fair price for their produce, regardless of market conditions.

(b) Buffer Stock: 

Buffer stock refers to the excess stock of essential goods, such as food grains, that a government maintains to stabilize prices and ensure supply in case of a shortage.

(c) Issue Price: 

The government issues food grains to deficit areas at a price known as the Issue Price, which is typically lower than the market price.

(d) Fair Price Shop: 

Fair price shops are government-sponsored outlets that provide essential items at subsidized rates during times of shortage. This includes outlets such as Mother Dairy and Super Bazaars, which also function as fair price shops.

Q11. What are the problems of the functioning of ration shops?

Ans: The functioning of ration shops in India has been plagued by various problems. Here are five common issues:

1. Corruption: Ration shops are notorious for corruption, with reports of shopkeepers diverting supplies or selling them on the black market for a profit.

2. Poor Quality of Goods: Often, the goods provided by ration shops are of poor quality and can be unfit for consumption. This is because the goods are often old or not stored properly.

3. Inadequate Supply: In some areas, ration shops do not receive adequate supplies of foodgrains, which can result in long queues and shortages of essential items.

4. Lack of Awareness: Many people are not aware of their entitlements or the functioning of the ration shop system, leading to confusion and frustration.

5. Technological Challenges: Ration shops often face technological challenges, such as outdated record-keeping systems or problems with electronic point-of-sale machines, which can further exacerbate the issues faced by both shopkeepers and customers.

Q12. Write a note on the role of cooperatives in providing food and related items.


Cooperative societies have established shops to provide low-priced goods to poor people. Mother Dairy, for example, has experienced rapid growth in Delhi by providing milk and vegetables at government-controlled prices. Amul, a cooperative that deals with milk and milk products in Gujarat, is another success story, credited with bringing about the ‘White Revolution’ in India. These cooperatives are present in various parts of the country, working to ensure food security for different segments of society.

Leave a Reply

%d bloggers like this: