NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 People as resource Questions and Answers

The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 – People as Resource provide comprehensive answers to the exercises given in the Economics book.

These solutions are designed to help students score well in CBSE examinations by providing them with relevant study material and guidance on how to write answers effectively.

The solutions cover all the key concepts and topics discussed in the chapter, helping students develop a strong understanding of the subject matter.

By mastering this chapter, students can also benefit in higher classes, as the concepts of human capital and its importance are fundamental to economics.

The solutions are carefully crafted to ensure that students not only understand the content but also develop the skill of presenting their answers in a structured and organized manner.

These unique NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 – People as Resource are a valuable resource for students to excel in their examinations and gain a solid foundation in economics.

Q1. What do you understand by ‘people as a resource’?

Ans: The concept of “People as a Resource” denotes how the population can serve as an asset rather than a liability. This term encompasses the productive skills and abilities of the working class within society. Human capital is formed when investments are made in education and training, along with promoting health and well-being. By enhancing the skills and capabilities of individuals, they can contribute positively to the economy, ultimately leading to the development of society.

Q2. How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical Capital?

Ans: Human resources differ from other resources in several key ways that highlight their unique nature:

  1. Human resources are not fixed, limited, or specified like land and other resources. They have the potential to be nurtured and developed through education and health interventions, allowing for growth and improvement over time.
  2. Human resources have the capacity to bring about change in other resources, whereas other resources cannot directly impact or change human resources. Human resources possess the ability to innovate, create, and drive advancements in technology, economy, and society.
  3. Human resources are capable of utilizing and maximizing the potential of land and physical capital. Unlike land and physical capital, which cannot become useful on their own, human resources possess the cognitive abilities, skills, and creativity to effectively utilize and manage other resources to generate value and productivity.

In summary, human resources are dynamic and malleable, with the potential to be nurtured and developed, bring about change, and effectively utilize other resources. This sets them apart from other resources that are fixed, limited, and passive in nature.

Q3. What is the role of education in human capital formation?

Ans: Education plays a pivotal role in the formation of human capital, and here are some unique reasons why:

  1. Economic asset: An educated individual is an asset to the economy, rather than a liability. Education equips individuals with knowledge, skills, and abilities that enable them to actively participate in the workforce, contribute to economic growth, and generate income through productive employment.
  2. Economic opportunities: Education empowers individuals to make better use of economic opportunities. It enhances national income by producing a skilled and capable workforce, enriches cultural diversity, and increases the efficiency of government by producing informed and engaged citizens.
  3. Individual productivity: Education enhances individual productivity, both in terms of quality and quantity of work. Educated individuals are better equipped to adapt to changing economic demands, innovate, and contribute to technological advancements, leading to increased productivity in various sectors of the economy.
  4. Societal consciousness: Education instills a sense of social responsibility and awareness in individuals. Educated individuals tend to be more socially conscious and engaged, contributing positively to their communities and society as a whole.
  5. Health and hygiene: Education promotes awareness of health and hygiene practices, leading to better health outcomes for individuals and communities. Educated individuals are more likely to adopt healthy lifestyle habits, leading to reduced healthcare costs and improved well-being.
  6. Breaking the cycle of poverty: Education provides opportunities for individuals to break the cycle of poverty. It opens doors to better job prospects, higher incomes, and improved living standards, creating a positive ripple effect on families and communities.

Investing in education and health yields high returns in the form of increased earnings, enhanced productivity, and greater contributions to society. It is a recognized fact that education and health are critical determinants of human capital formation, and their importance cannot be overstated in driving economic and social progress.

Q4. What is the role of health in human capital formation?

Ans: Health plays a crucial role in the formation of human capital, as highlighted by the following unique points:

  1. Improved Immunity: Good health enables individuals to have a stronger immune system, making them better equipped to fight illnesses and diseases. Healthy individuals are less likely to be absent from work due to sickness, resulting in improved productivity.
  2. Enhanced Overall Well-being: Being healthy contributes to the overall well-being of an individual. It promotes physical and mental fitness, leading to increased energy levels, better concentration, and improved cognitive function. This, in turn, can positively impact an individual’s performance at work or in other activities, leading to better outcomes.
  3. Increased Work Efficiency: The health of an individual has a direct correlation with their ability to work efficiently. When individuals are healthy, they are more capable of meeting the physical and mental demands of their work, resulting in increased productivity and performance.
  4. Positive Impact on Human Capital: Investing in healthcare measures to improve the health of individuals in a country can result in increased human capital and productivity. Healthy individuals are more likely to actively participate in the labor force, contribute to economic growth, and enhance the overall development of society.

It is evident that prioritizing healthcare measures and promoting good health among individuals can have a direct and positive impact on human capital formation, leading to increased productivity and overall well-being.

Q5. What part does health play in the individual’s working life?

Ans: Health is a crucial factor in an individual’s life, as it directly affects their ability to perform to their full potential. A healthy person is capable of working efficiently and effectively, while an unhealthy person may face limitations. It is well-known that “health is wealth,” as it enables individuals to work harder and earn a better living. A healthy body is a prerequisite for optimal performance. Therefore, the role of health in an individual’s life cannot be overstated.

Furthermore, good health contributes to increased productivity in the workplace. A healthy individual is more likely to deliver better outcomes and exhibit higher efficiency compared to an unhealthy person. The ability to work for longer durations and with higher productivity is a result of good health. Thus, health plays a vital role in an individual’s work life.

In conclusion, the importance of health in an individual’s life is undeniable. It impacts an individual’s ability to work efficiently, earn a livelihood, and lead a better quality of life. Prioritizing and maintaining good health is crucial for optimal performance and success in various aspects of life, including work.

Q6. What are the various activities are undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?

Ans: The activities in an economy are typically classified into three main sectors: primary, secondary, and tertiary. The primary sector encompasses agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming, and mining, including quarrying. The secondary sector includes manufacturing activities. The tertiary sector comprises trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, services, insurance, and other similar activities.

Q7. What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?

Ans: Economic activities and non-economic activities are two categories of human activities that are differentiated based on their nature and purpose in relation to the economy.

Economic Activities: Economic activities are those activities that involve the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services with the aim of generating income and contributing to economic growth. Economic activities are undertaken with the intention of making a profit or acquiring wealth. Examples of economic activities include manufacturing, agriculture, trade, finance, tourism, and services such as transportation, healthcare, and education. Economic activities typically involve the use of resources such as labor, capital, and natural resources, and are usually conducted within a market or exchange system where goods and services are bought and sold at a price.

Non-economic Activities: Non-economic activities, on the other hand, are activities that do not involve production, distribution, or consumption of goods and services for the purpose of generating income or wealth. Non-economic activities are usually undertaken for personal or social reasons and do not have a direct economic motive. Examples of non-economic activities include household chores, volunteering, hobbies, religious or cultural activities, and leisure activities. Non-economic activities do not typically involve the exchange of goods and services in a market, and their value is not measured in monetary terms.

In summary, the key difference between economic activities and non-economic activities lies in their purpose and nature. Economic activities are undertaken with the aim of generating income and contributing to economic growth, while non-economic activities are usually pursued for personal, social, or cultural reasons, and do not have an economic motive.

Q8. Why are women employed in low paid work?

Ans: Women receive payment for their work when they participate in the labor market. Similar to men, their earnings are determined based on their education and skills. However, many women have limited access to education and skill development opportunities, resulting in lower pay compared to men. Additionally, women often work in jobs with precarious job security. 

Q9. How will you explain the term unemployment?

Ans: Unemployment refers to a state of being without a job or gainful employment, where individuals who are able and willing to work are actively seeking employment but are unable to find suitable job opportunities.

This phenomenon is observed in both rural and urban areas. In rural areas, seasonal unemployment is prevalent, while in urban areas, educated unemployment is common.

Q10. What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?

Ans: Disguised unemployment is a form of unemployment where individuals appear to be employed but are not actually engaged in productive or meaningful work. It often occurs in sectors such as agriculture, where more people are involved in a task than are actually needed to accomplish it efficiently.

For example, in a farm where only four people are needed for the work, but eight people are working, the additional four individuals are surplus and do not contribute to increasing production. If these extra four individuals were removed from the farm, the farm’s production would not decrease. As a result, these four individuals may seem to be employed, but in reality, they are disguisedly unemployed, as their work does not add value to the productive activity.

Seasonal unemployment occurs when individuals are unable to find employment during specific months or seasons of the year. where individuals are without employment during certain seasons and are considered seasonally unemployed.

Example: In agriculture, there are certain busy seasons, such as sowing, harvesting, weeding, and threshing, when demand for labor is high. However, during periods when crops are growing, there may be less work available, resulting in unemployment for those dependent on agricultural activities.

Q11. Why is educated unemployed, a peculiar problem of India?

Ans: The issue of educated unemployment in India is particularly notable due to the unique aspect of the country’s education system, which deems individuals above the age of 18 years as eligible to join the workforce. Despite obtaining matriculation, graduation, and even postgraduate degrees, a significant number of youth are struggling to secure employment opportunities. Shockingly, recent studies reveal that unemployment rates are rising at a faster pace among graduates and postgraduates compared to those with basic education levels. This paradoxical situation has led to a unique manpower scenario, with surplus labor in certain sectors coexisting with a dire shortage in others, posing complex challenges to the nation’s workforce dynamics.

Q12. In which field do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity?

Ans: Renewable Energy: India has been increasingly focusing on renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydro power. With ambitious renewable energy targets and government initiatives, there is potential for the creation of employment opportunities in areas such as manufacturing of solar panels, installation and maintenance of renewable energy infrastructure, and research and development in renewable energy technologies.

Q13. Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed?

Ans: Students must answer this question based on their own experience.

Q14. Which capital would you consider the best — land, labour, physical capital and human capital? Why?

Ans: Human capital is the capital I consider the most valuable. This is evident from countries like Japan, which have invested heavily in human resources due to the lack of natural resources. Despite this limitation, these countries have achieved remarkable economic development and prosperity. They have prioritized investments in education and healthcare, nurturing a highly skilled and healthy workforce. The efficiency and technological advancements brought about by their people have allowed them to make optimal use of other resources like land and physical capital.

These countries have recognized that human capital, represented by the knowledge, skills, and health of their people, is the driving force behind economic growth and development. By prioritizing human capital development, they have built a highly productive and innovative workforce that has leveraged technology and innovation to overcome resource constraints. This has propelled them to the forefront of global economic rankings.

Investing in human capital pays dividends in the long run as it fosters a skilled and adaptable workforce that can navigate challenges, drive innovation, and contribute to sustainable economic growth. Therefore, I believe that human capital is the most valuable capital, as it enables countries to overcome resource limitations and achieve sustainable development.

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