The French Revolution
- French society during the late 18th century
- The outbreak of the revolution
- Abolishment of monarchy
- Role of women in the revolution
- The Abolishment of slavery
- Revolution and everyday life
- Napoleon dictatorship
On the morning of 14 July 1789, the city of Paris was in a state of alarm. The king had commanded troops to move into the city. Rumours spread that he would soon order the army to open fire upon citizens, citizen decided to make the army fight against the troops. Some 7000 men and women gathering in the front of the town hall to fight against the troops.
All the people military went to prison, the Bastille. They won the Bastille and these days called the ‘French National Day’.
French society during the late 18th century:
- During the 13th century, the Bourbon family rule over France.
- In 1774, Louis 16 of the Bourbon family of Kings ascended the throne of France.
- When he was born 20 years old and he married the Austrian princess Marie Antoinette.
- When he ruled over France, the financial condition of France is very bad.
- The currency of France is Livres.
- French society divided into three states Clergy, Nobility and Pleasantry.
- He thought that he take the tax from the 3rd estate of France to maintain the financial condition.
Subsistence Crises :
The subsistence crisis is increased by the following condition:
• The French population is increased.
• Demand for food grain is increased.
because of this condition food prices increased and it is possible to purchase the bread for the third estate.
A growing middle class envisages as an end to privilege:
• Lawyers and Administrative were educated and believe that no group in society should be privileged by birth.
• Rather of a person’s social position must depend on his merit.
• These ideas and visiting a society based on Freedom equal laws and opportunity of all.
Contribution of the philosopher :
Montesquieu, Rousseau and John Locke are the philosopher who published the idea of Equality Liberty Fertanity in the book of the spirit of the law, the social contract and two Treatises of government.
The outbreak of the revolution:
- On 5 may 1789 Louis XVI called together and assembly of an estate general to pass a proposal for new taxes.
- The meeting is held in the Versailles.
- About 300 representatives from the first and second estate and the 600 represented from the third estate.
- No man and pleasant has come in the form of representative.
- The traditional in following in this meeting is ‘one estate one vote’.
- The third estate come front for his right, they give the condition in the assembly ‘one member one vote’.
- But the Louis 16 not ready to take this condition and left the Assembly.
- On 20 June 1789, they together collect in the indoor tennis court and declared as a national assembly.
- They decided to take all the power of Louis XVI and make a constitution.
- Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes were two the members of clergy and priest write many articles of the topic of 3rd estate.
- The Rumor was spread in the French that the military destroys the crops of the pleasant, because of this rumour the Louis XVI was very afraid.
- On 14 July, the agitated crowd stormed and destroyed the Bastille.
- Make the constitution and take all power of first and second estate.
- • Abolished the tax system.
• In1791, the national assembly make a constitution, the main motive of this constitution the power of Louis XVI to the legislature, executive and judiciary.
• In 1791, the monarch is converted into a constitutional monarchy.
• During the time society divided into two citizens the active citizen and passive citizen.
Active citizen has the right to vote but the Passage citizen has the right to vote.
• Due to this national assembly, the basic rights of man was received by the people.
France abolishes the monarchy and becomes a Republic :
- Because of the revolution in Russia, the neighbouring country of Russia decided the war to France.
- The national assembly declared the war against Austria and Prussia.
- Thousand of volunteer thronged from the provinces to join the army.
- All the political right was given only to rich people.
- The National Anthem of France is ‘Marseilles’.
- All the middle-class people take help through the political club the name of a famous club was a Jacobin club.
- In the Jacobin club, the member was shopkeeper, shoes maker and sweeper.
- Maximilian Robespierre was the leader of the Jacobin club.
- On 10 August 1792, the member of Jacobin club attack to the king’s palace.
- 21 September 1792, the monarch what’s finished from France.
- After the abolishment of the monarchy, the maximum is ruled all over Russia.
- Maximilian was killed by the people same as that he kill the people with Guillotine.
- The guillotine was the device consisting of two poles and a blade with which a person is beheaded.
A directory rules France:
• The Fall of the Jacobin government the power has come in the hand of the rich people.
• They make a new constitution and to Legislative Assembly and elected a directory with the five members.
• After some time the fight was held between the legislative assembly and a directory.
• Because of this fight, the benefit is taken by the Military officer Napoleon Bonaparte and rule over France in 1804.
Role of women in the revolution:
- The condition of women is bad in French society.
- On 5 October 1789, about 6000 women attack to the Paris Versailles.
- Because of this protest, Louis XVI and his family left the palace and went to Paris.
- Women do not have the right to vote and take education, only rich women take education and went to school.
- The woman makes the to club the society of Revolutionary and Republican woman and give the expression to the government for the basic rights.
- After some time the government take the basic right to the women:(a) Make a school for the women and have the education right. (b) Parents cannot force women to marry.(c) In the case of divorce men and women have equal right. (d) They have the right to do the job and business.
- In 1946 finally, women have the right to vote.
The abolition of slavery:
- The Caribbean – Martinique, Guadeloupe and San Domingo were the important suppliers of commodities such as tobacco, indigo, sugar and coffee.
- For this cultivation of these crops, the shortage of labour is increased in France.
- To solve the problem of labour shortage the Government of France following decision:
- The French Merchant went to Africa and purchase the slaves and come to France.
- French merchant sailed from the port of Bordeaux and Nantes, the condition of slaves was very bad and the France national assembly affairs to the Merchant.
- Finally, in 1794, the slavery system was stopped for some time through the convention.
- But after some time, Napoleon Bonaparte again starts the slavery system.
- The fight against the slavery system was started in France.
- Finally, in 1848, the slavery system was abolished in France.
The revolution and everyday life:
- • They get freedom of speech.
- • Free press without censorship.
- • Through the newspaper and books, the idea of liberty and equality wad spread in France.
- In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself emperor of France.
- He set her family member in the Throne of the neighbouring European countries.
- He introduced many laws such as the protection of private property and a uniform system of weight and measures provided by the decimal system
- In 1815, finally, he was defeated in the Waterloo.